A BWCA Glossary
- The sum total of environmental factors which support a species, including food and shelter.
- A general term for a deciduous broadleaf tree species and for the wood produced from such trees. Has little or
nothing to do with actual or relative wood hardness.
- The "rabbit" of the North Country, the Snowshoe Hare (Lepus americanus) is prey for many species, including
the elusive Lynx (Lynx canadensis). Known for its large feet and seasonal change of color. Missâbos
in the Ojibwe.
- A low perennial wildflower (Campanula rotundifolia)
of rocky places.
- A lake in the Isabella River drainage. Name derivation unknown.
- Any of several slim, low-soaring hawks of the genus Circus, the sole North American species of which is
the Northern Harrier, (Circus cyaneus). Often seen flying low, hunting over wetlands. Formerly known as Marsh
- Peg-shaped projections of the Mycobiont (fungal element of a lichen), inserted into the algal cell to
feed on the cell's sugars.
- Any of the diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipiteridæ, and in particular of the sub-families
Accipitrinæ, Circinæ, and Buteoninæ, the Bird Hawks, Marsh Hawks, and Buzzard
Hawks respectively. From the Old English haðuc, heafoc, from the root hað, haf, "to seize."
- Any of several species of nut bearing shrub or small tree of the genus Corylus. Represented in the North
Country by two common species of tall shrub, the American Hazel (Corylus
americana) and the Beaked Hazel (Corylus cornuta).
Pagânimij or ogebwamij in the Ojibwe.
- A low shrub of the family Ericaceae. Well represented in the North Country, particularly in bogs. These
Heaths include Bearberry, Cranberry,
Labrador Tea, Leatherleaf,
Bog Rosemary and Laurel,
and, of course, the Blueberries.
- Heinselman, Myron
- Ecologist and author. His book, The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem, is the best written on
the subject. Published by University of Minnesota Press.
- 1) Any of several species of wetland herb of the genus Circuta. Represented in the North Country by two
species, Bulb Bearing Water Hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera)
and Spotted Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata), both of which
are extremely poisonous. 2) In other parts of the North Country, though not the BWCA, the coniferous tree Tsuga
canadensis. Kagagiwanj in the Ojibwe.
- Non-woody plants whose above ground growth lives for but one season, dying back to the ground in winter. Known
as herbs in the non-culinary sense.
- Animal whose diet is made up exclusively of plant material. The preeminent herbivore of the North Woods is, of
course, the Moose. From the Latin, herba, "vegetation", and vorare, "to swallow."
- The scientific study of reptiles and amphibians,
known collectively as herps.
- Herriman Lake Trails
- A 14 mile system of hiking and cross-country ski trails off St. Louis County Road 424 near Crane Lake (BWCAW
Entry Point 13).
- Height of Land Portage
- An 80 rod Border Route portage between North and South Lakes. So named because it crosses the Continental Divide,
from the St. Lawrence River drainage to the drainage of Hudson Bay.
- Shark like. Generally used to describe the shape of fish tails where the upper lobe is considerably longer than
the lower, such as that of the Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).
- A plant species requiring two taxonomically different hosts to complete its entire life cycle. The rust fungi,
such as White Pine Blister Rust, are classic examples.
- Highland Morraine
- The terminus of a late glacial advance of the Superior ice sheet onto the highlands of the North Shore during
the Automba Phase.
- A sugary liquid discharged from the anus of certain homopterous insects.
- Any of many species of woody vine or shrub of the genus Lonicera, represented in the Northwoods by several
species, including the Fly Honeysuckle (Lonicera canadensis).
- Horse Portage
- The 340 rod Border Route portage around Upper Basswood Falls and the rapids of the Basswood River downstream.
- The large biting fly of the North Woods, represented by several species of the genus Tabanus. Loves to
bite wet skin and will bite through light-weight fabric. Misisâk in the Ojibwe.
- Any of several species of ancient and primitive plants of the genus Equisetum. A close relative of the
ferns and clubmosses, represented by several species in the North Country,
including the Water Horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile) and
Tall Scouring Rush (Equisetum hyemale). Kisibanashk
in the Ojibwe.
- Horsetail Rapids
- A Border Route rapid dropping 5' into the Granite River at the outlet of Maraboeuf Lake. A 27 rod portage bypasses
the rapid on the eastern (Canadian) side.
- A living organism serving as a food source for a parasite.
- Houghton, Lake
- Another predecessor of Lake Superior, larger than Lake Duluth and later (about 9500 years
ago), it occupied most of the current Superior Basin.
- A small North Shore community on US Highway 61, near the Arrowhead Trail turnoff.
- Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (HGE)
- A disease carried by the Deer Tick. The signs and symptoms of HGE can include
fever (over 102°), severe headache, chills and shaking rigors, and muscle aches. Less frequent symptoms include
nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, cough, diarrhea, aching joints, and change in mental
status. Ehrlichiosis is treated with antibiotics. Other tick-borne diseases that occur in Minnesota include Babesiosis
and Lyme disease.
- In northern bogs, mounds built up by successive generations, and species, of Sphagnum
- That part of the organic materials accumulated in the soil, generally dark in color and relatively stable, which
has decomposed to a point where the original sources can no longer be identified.
- Hunters Island
- The largest island in the Superior/Quetico region. Marked on most maps, its outline is initially quite difficult
to ascertain. Surrounded by water, it may still push the definition of island.
- Huronian Period
- A billion years in the geological history of the North Country (2.6 to 1.6 billion years ago) during the Middle
Precambrian. The great iron deposits of Northern Minnesota were laid down during this time. Also known as Animikean.
- Soil that is saturated for sufficient periods of time to produce anærobic
- Plant typically found in wet areas or in water with periodic oxygen deficiencies.
- The individual filaments which make up the fungi, branching out to form a network called a mycelium. A
hypha grows only at its tip, not throughout its length. Outer hyphae on the surface can exhibit pigmentation.
- In a lake, the layer of cold, dense waters extending below a depth of 15'-30'. Separated from the warm, oxygen-rich
water of the epilimnion by the thermocline and only
mixing during spring and fall turnover.
- The physiological condition where the internal temperature of the human body drops. Usually a result of environmental
conditions, it can be sudden and fatal and should be a concern for anyone traveling outdoors in areas with wet and
changeable weather, including Canoe Country.