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Mixed Hardwood Forest

 

Flora, fauna, earth, and sky...
The natural history of the northwoods

Classification

  • Province: Laurentian Mixed Forest
    • Section: Northern Superior Uplands
      • Subsection: Border Lakes
  • System: Fire Dependent Woodland

Description:

  • The Alder/Willow Wetland, about 2.5% of the BWCAW by surface area
  • Slow moving subsurface water with dense, nearly impenetrable cover of tall shrubs
  • Signature Species

Indicator
Species:

Plants of the Maple/Oak Community

Trees

Shrubs

Herbs

Ground Cover

  • Reindeer Mosses, Cladonia spp.
  • Dicranum Mosses, Dicranum spp.
  • Hair Cap Moss, Polystrichum commune

Plants of the Maple/Aspen/Birch Community

Trees

Shrubs

Herbs

Ground Cover

Plants of the Maple/Aspen/Birch/Fir Community

Trees

Shrubs

Herbs

Ground Cover

Landform & Topography:

Soils & Hydrology:

Identification:

  • About 14.5% of the BWCAW by surface area
  • The northern edge of the climax deciduous forest of eastern North America
  • Signature Species
    • Basswood, Tilia americana
    • Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (absent from BWCA)
    • Sugar Maple, Acer saccharum
    • Yellow Birch, Betula allegenensis (rare in BWCA)
  • Sub-types
  • Turkey Vulture, Cathartes aura
  • Broad Winged Hawk, Buteo platypterus
  • Red Tailed Hawk, Buteo jamaicensis
  • Woodcock, Scolopax minor
  • Barred Owl, Strix varia
  • Ruffed Grouse, Bonasa umbellus
  • Whip-poor-will, Caprimulgus vociferus
  • Downy Woodpecker, Picoides pubescens
  • Yellow Bellied Sapsucker, Sphyrapicus varius
  • Eastern Wood Pewee, Contopus virens
  • Least Flycatcher, Empidonax minimus
  • Veery, Catharus fuscescens
  • American Robin, Turdus migratorius
  • Bohemian Waxwing, Bombycilla garrulus
  • Cedar Waxwing, Bombycilla cedrorum
  • Black Cap Chickadee, Parus atricapillus
  • Brown Creeper, Certhia familiaris
  • White Breasted Nuthatch, Sitta carolinensis
  • Red Eyed Vireo, Vireo olivaceus
  • Solitary Vireo, Vireo solitarius
  • Golden Winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera
  • Black Throated Blue Warbler, Dendroica caerulescens
  • Black Throated Green Warbler, Dendroica virens
  • Pine Warbler, Dendroica pinus
  • Canada Warbler, Wilsonia canadensis
  • Black and White Warbler, Mniotilta varia
  • American Redstart, Setophagia ruticilla
  • Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus
  • Scarlet Tanager, Piranga olivacea
  • Rose Breasted Grosbeak, Pheucticus ludovicianus
  • Chipping Sparrow, Spizella passerina
  • Clay Colored Sparrow, Spizella pallida
  • Dark Eyed Junco, Junco hyemalis
  • Common Grackle, Quiscalus quiscula
  • Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus
  • White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus

Natural
History

  • History

Other
Communities:

Lowland Plant Communities Upland Plant Communities
 

Boreal border

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Last updated on 30 June, 2004